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Agra Red Fort - Historical Monument

Agra Red Fort, Agra

An architectural wonder in stone, the Red Fort of Agra is an important Mughal monument of the 16th century. Built on the banks of Yamuna, the Fort is surrounded by a 70 feet high walls and encompasses within its enclosure walls the imperial city of the Mughal rulers. It houses numerous palaces including the Jahangiri Mahal built by Akbar for his wife Jodha Bai, Diwan-i-Khas, Diwan-i-Aam and two beautiful mosques. This massive and grand fort is a painstaking creating of four successive emperors Akbar, Jehangir, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb – each making a beautiful addition after the other. While Akbar designed it primarily as a military fortification and created the massive 70 feet high walls, the beautiful gates and the dwelling portions, such as the Akbar and the Jahangiri Mahal, his grandson Shah Jahan created the exquisite white marble edifices. Jehangir added a few inner buildings while Aurangzeb built the rampart and the fosses outside the fort. The Agra fort is therefore a unique monument which embodies the arts and personalities of four different emperors as also the administrative and military requirements of four periods of Mughal history.

Gateways

The fort had originally four gates, two of which were later walled up. Delhi gate inside the west is fortified by massive octagonal towers and faces the bazaar and leads to the Jama Masjid within the city. Its architectural plan was imperviously devised to place the defenders in a beneficial placement. Delhi gate is now closed for guests.

The Amar Singh Gate lies to the South and is also defended by a square bastion flanked by round towers. It had a crooked entrance with hazardous entice points and a steep rise. Its Naubat Khana Court with pillared pavilions is an extraordinary construction. Visitors are permitted entry by means of this gate only.

Buildings inside the fort


Jehangir Mahal
This really is the very first notable building the visitor sees on his proper hand facet in the end of the spacious lawn, as one enters via the Amar Singh Gate and emerges from the passage. It was constructed by Akbar as women's quarters and may be the only constructing that survives among his unique palace buildings. It is built of stone and it is basically adorned on the exterior. Essentially the most crucial characteristic of the edifice are its ornamental stone brackets which assistance the beams. In entrance can be a large stone bowl which we almost certainly used to include fragrant rose h2o. Ornamental Persian verses are actually carved along the outer rim, which report its construction by Jehangir in 1611 Ad. This exquisite, double storyed palace displays a strong Hindi impact with protruding balconies and domed chatries.

Jodha Bai's Palace
To the correct of Jehangir Mahal is Akbar's favorite queen Jodha Bai's Palace. In distinction to other palaces in the fort, it really is relatively straightforward. By way of the slits within the wall one can see the Taj.

Anguri Bagh
These formal, eighty five m square, geometric gardens lie towards the left on the fort. In the course of Shah Jahan's time the attractiveness of the gardens was considerably enhanced by ornamental flower beds.

Golden Pavilions
The curved chala roofs of your modest pavilions produced by the Khaas Mahal are based on the roof shape of Bengali village huts produced out of curved bamboo, developed to maintain of hefty rains. The shape was initial expressed in stone through the Sultans of bengal. Originally gilded, these had been almost certainly ladies' bedrooms with hiding locations for jewellery within the partitions. These pavilions are typically associated with Shah Jahan's daughters - Roshanara and Jahanara Begum.

Khaas Mahal
Situated in in between the golden pavilions will be the Khaas Mahal. Built entirely of marble by Shah Jahan, the palace demonstrates distinctive Islamic-Persian functions. They're well blended with a striking selection of Hindu functions including chhatries. It really is considered to be emperor's sleeping space or 'Aramgah'. The Khaas Mahal supplies the most effective instance of painting on the white marble surface.

Musamman Burj
On the left of the Khaas Mahal will be the Musamman Burj built by Shah Jahan. It is a stunning octagonal tower with an open pavilion. With its openness, elevation plus the benefit of cool night breezes blowing in off the Yamuna River, this could well happen to be used also because the emperor's bed room. That is exactly where Shah Jahan lay on his death mattress, gazing at the Taj. Access to this tower is via a magnificently decorated and intimate apartment together with the scalloped fountain inside the centre. The inlay function here is beautiful, in particular over the pillars. In front from the fountain is really a sunken courtyard which could possibly be flooded and in the Sheesh Mahal opposite are further examples of ornamental h2o engineering within the hammams.

Sheesh Mahal
Opposite towards the Musamman Burj and just below the Diwan-I-Khaas hall could be the Sheesh Mahal or the Glass Palace. It is believed to possess been the harem dressing space and its partitions are inlaid with small mirrors that are the best specimens of your glass-mosaic decoration in India. The Sheesh Mahal is composed of two massive halls of equal dimensions, every measuring 11.15m X six.40m. Each are connected within the centre by a broad arched opening and on the sides by two slim passages.

Diwan-i-Khaas
To the right of Sheesh Mahal is Diwan-I-Khaas, the hall of Non-public Audience. Presently entry isn't allowed within Diwan-I-Khaas however the high-quality proportions on the building can quickly be appreciated. The marble pillars are inlaid with semi-precious stones in delightful floral patterns.

Hammam-i-Shahi
The proper of Diwan-I-Khaas is the Hammam-I-shahi or even the Shah Burj. Foreign vacationers who visited Agra in the course of the reigns of Jahangir and Shah Jahan have described these apartments as the Ghasal Khana (rest room). It was not the Turkish bathroom as is generally but erroneously meant. It was seriously an "air-conditioned"apartment, connected to the residential quarters and was employed like a summer time retreat. Organization of incredibly confidential nature was performed here.

Macchhi Bhawan
Opposite towards the Diwan-I-Khaas may be the Macchhi Bhawan, the Fish Enclosure. The emperor sat on the white marble platform going through this enclosure. It once contained pools and marble fountains which were carried off by Jat Raja Surajmal to his palace at Deeg. Around the Macchhi Bawan had been the imperial offices.

Diwan-i-Aam
In entrance on the Macchhi Bhawan is Diwan-i-Am. 1 can strategy it by heading down an internal staircase. The clever positioning with the pillars offers the visitor, arriving through the gates inside the proper and left hand walls with the courtyard, an uninterrupted watch of the throne. About the back wall of the pavilion are jali screens to enable the women from the court to look at with out being seen. The throne alcove is of richly embellished white marble. It utilised to home the peacock Throne. When Shah Jahan moved his capital to Delhi, it absolutely was taken towards the Red Fort.

Nagina Masjid
From your corner opposite the Diwan-i-khaas two doorways result in a view over the modest courtyards of your zenana. Further round in the subsequent corner may be the Nagina Masjid. Footwear ought to be eliminated at the doorway. Built by Shah Jahan, this was the private mosque of the ladies of the court. Beneath it was Mina Bazaar for that women to create purchases in the marble balcony over.

Moti Masjid
To appropriate with the Diwan-i-Am 1 can see the domes of your Moti Maszid (Pearl Mosque), the prettiest construction at Agra Fort. The creating is presently closed for guests.

Mina Masjid
Just over the Sheesh Mahal apartments is located the Mina Masjid which appears to possess been produced by Shah Jahan for strictly non-public use. The Mina Masjid is enclosed on all sides by substantial partitions. The marble mosque has 3 small arches in its façade which are plain and unadorned. Essentially the most necessary function within this palace-mosque will be the modest chhajja previously mentioned the arcade which is supported on 4 exquisitely carved and mould, modest brackets of white marble.